For communications service providers (CSPs), software-defined networking (SDN) was never really about a specific protocol (e.g., OpenFlow). Rather, it was about a specific goal to build flexible, automated, and programmable networks that deliver new services to market faster and reduce overall network costs. During the past decade, the software technology tools have morphed and evolved, but the goal remains the same—and it centers on openness and automation.  This white paper is based on the global survey results and provides the industry’s most in-depth look at the current state and future trajectory of open, automated, and programmable transport networks.