Research and Education (R&E) bandwidth demands are increasing dramatically with new applications, petabyte-scale data sharing between institutions, and the utilization of cloud and big data services. In this challenging scenario, it is important to rethink building the R&E network. Improving performance, scalability, flexibility, operational efficiency, and cost optimization are basic requirements for R&E networks to evolve. To address these architectural requirements, new technologies can be added to the existing network.